Key Takeaways
  • Insightly CRM has a wide range of capabilities, including lead management, customizable sales processes, automated workflows, reporting, and much more.
  • Pros of Insightly CRM include its user-friendly interface, scalability, integration capabilities, and its comprehensive feature offerings.
  • Alternatives to Insightly CRM are Salesmate, Zendesk Sell, Pipedrive, and many more.
  • Insightly CRM has received average ratings of 4.2/5 on G2, 4/5 on Capterra, and 4.03/5 on Software Advice.

In the fast-paced business landscape of 2023, staying ahead of the competition requires more than just delivering a stellar product or service.   

It’s all about fostering meaningful relationships with customers, understanding their needs, and providing exceptional experiences at every touchpoint.  

It is where a reliable Customer Relationship Management (CRM) tool becomes an indispensable asset for modern businesses.  

In this insightful review, we dive deep into Insightly CRM, a leading solution making waves in the industry.   

Whether you’re a small startup or a well-established enterprise, this comprehensive analysis will empower you with the knowledge needed to make an informed decision regarding Insightly CRM’s suitability for your business.  

Throughout this review, we’ll explore the key features, functionalities, and benefits that Insightly CRM brings to the table.   

We’ll uncover how it streamlines your sales processes, enhances customer service, and improves team collaboration.   

Moreover, we’ll examine its scalability, integrations, and customization options, ensuring you have a holistic understanding of its capabilities and limitations.  

So, let’s embark on this journey to uncover the untapped potential of Insightly CRM and revolutionize how you engage with your customers. 

What is Insightly CRM? 

Insightly CRM dashboard


Insightly CRM is a powerful customer relationship management tool designed to help businesses manage and nurture customer relationships effectively.   

With a user-friendly interface and a wide range of features, Insightly CRM enables organizations to centralize customer data, track interactions, streamline sales processes, and enhance team collaboration.   

It offers robust functionalities like contact management, opportunity tracking, task management, and email integration, empowering businesses to deliver personalized experiences and drive growth.    

What is the tool built for? 

Insightly CRM is a comprehensive solution to help businesses effectively manage customer relationships. It aims to empower organizations to deliver personalized experiences, improve customer satisfaction, and drive overall growth. 

When did this tool start? 

Insightly CRM was launched in 2009. 

How many users use this tool? 

Insightly CRM had over 1.5 million users worldwide. 

Who owns the company? 

Anthony Smith owns Insightly CRM. 

Who are the C-level executives of this tool? 

The C-level executives of Insightly CRM include Anthony Smith as the CEO and Founder, Patrick Kaldawy as the Vice President, David Osborne Chief Sales Officer, and Chip House as the Chief Marketing Officer. 

Where is the headquarters of this company? 

Insightly’s headquarters is located in San Francisco, California, United States. 

Insightly CRM features 

  • Lead management 
  • Automated, customized emails 
  • Email templates 
  • Web-to-lead capture 
  • Kanban view 
  • Lead assignment and routing 
  • Schedule outbound emails 
  • Contact and organization management 
  • Opportunity management 
  • Customizable sales processes 
  • Configurable, automated workflows 
  • Task management 
  • Real-time data synchronization 
  • Forecasting 
  • Reporting 
  • Appointment Scheduling 

Top Insightly CRM features in detail 

Following are the top 10 features of Insightly CRM in detail: 

Lead management 

Lead management feature of Insightly CRM


Insightly CRM offers robust lead management capabilities, allowing businesses to capture, track, and nurture leads efficiently.   

With lead capture forms, businesses can quickly gather essential information from potential customers, eliminating manual data entry. 

Lead scoring functionality helps prioritize leads based on criteria such as demographics and engagement, enabling focused efforts on high-potential leads.  

Lead assignment rules automate the distribution of leads to the right sales representatives, ensuring prompt follow-up.  

Insightly CRM tracks lead interactions and their progress through the sales pipeline, providing a holistic view for personalized follow-up.  

Valuable insights and analytics on lead performance empower businesses to make data-driven decisions for optimization.  

Overall, Insightly CRM streamlines lead management, enhancing efficiency and increasing the chances of converting leads into customers, driving revenue growth. 

Automated, customized emails  

Automated, customized emails feature of Insightly CRM


Insightly CRM’s automated and customized emails streamline communication by offering personalized templates, tailored messages, and automated follow-ups.  

Create visually appealing email templates, customize content based on customer data, and schedule automated follow-ups.  

It saves time, ensures consistency, and boosts engagement and conversion rates. Personalized templates enhance the impact of emails, while tailored messages based on customer data create relevant and targeted communication.  

Automated follow-ups eliminate the risk of leads slipping through the cracks. With Insightly CRM, you can nurture leads, maintain regular contact, and save time by automating follow-ups.  

This feature optimizes email campaigns, improves engagement, and drives higher conversion rates by delivering personalized, consistent, and timely communication. 

Email templates 

Email templates feature of Insightly CRM


Insightly CRM’s Email Templates feature offers a wide range of pre-designed templates that can be utilized to create professional and visually appealing emails.  

With these templates readily available, businesses can save valuable time and effort in designing emails from scratch.  

The templates are designed to focus on aesthetics and user-friendliness, ensuring that your email communications make a lasting impression. 

Moreover, Insightly CRM allows easy customization of these templates to align with your brand identity.  

You can incorporate your logo, choose color schemes, and tailor the content to reflect your unique brand voice.  

This level of customization ensures that your emails maintain a consistent and cohesive look, reinforcing your brand image and building recognition among recipients. 

Beyond branding, email templates also enable personalized communication with different customer segments.  

You can modify the template content to address specific customer needs, interests, or demographics, creating a more tailored and relevant experience.  

By delivering personalized messages, you can increase engagement, response rates, and conversions. 

Kanban view  

Kanban view feature of Insightly CRM


The Kanban view in Insightly CRM provides a dynamic and visual representation of your sales pipeline and workflow.  

With its intuitive and customizable board, you can effortlessly track the progress of leads, opportunities, and tasks. The board is divided into columns that represent different stages of your sales process, such as “Prospects,” “Qualified Leads,” “Negotiation,” and “Closed Deals.” 

Using the Kanban view, you can easily move items, such as leads or opportunities, between stages by dragging and dropping them from one column to another. 

It lets you update their status and visually see their progression through the pipeline. By having a clear overview of where each item stands, you can prioritize tasks, identify bottlenecks, and make informed decisions about resource allocation and sales strategies. 

The Kanban view promotes efficient collaboration among team members by providing a shared visual representation of the sales pipeline.  

It facilitates transparency and communication, allowing team members to assess the status of leads and opportunities quickly. 

It helps teams coordinate efforts, delegate tasks, and provide necessary support at each stage of the sales process.  

Contact and organization management  

Contact and organization management feature of Insightly CRM


Contact and Organization Management is a crucial feature of Insightly CRM that offers a centralized hub for effectively managing customer relationships.   

With this feature, you can store, organize, and update contact information and associated organizations in one place. It allows easy access to customer data, enabling you to track interactions, communication history, and essential details.  

Insightly CRM empowers you to gain valuable insights about your customers through contact and organization management.   

You can analyze purchase history, preferences, and engagement patterns to better understand their needs and tastes. This information helps you tailor your sales and marketing strategies to target specific customer segments.  

The contact segmentation and tagging capabilities of Insightly CRM are invaluable for creating personalized marketing campaigns. You can send targeted messages and offers by segmenting your customer base, enhancing customer engagement and satisfaction.

Additionally, this feature lets you associate multiple contacts with an organization, enabling a comprehensive view of all individuals involved in a business relationship.   

This feature facilitates better communication and collaboration across departments, ensuring a consistent and coordinated approach toward serving your customers. 

Opportunity management  

Opportunity management feature of Insightly CRM


Opportunity management is a critical aspect of sales success, and Insightly CRM provides a comprehensive set of features to help businesses effectively manage their sales opportunities.   

With Insightly CRM, you can easily track and prioritize your opportunities, ensuring that each potential deal receives the attention it deserves.   

You can ensure accountability and streamline the sales process by assigning opportunities to specific sales representatives.  

It allows you to monitor the progress of opportunities as they move through the sales pipeline. A clear overview of your options lets you focus on high-value prospects, increasing your chances of closing deals.  

The system enables you to attach necessary documents, notes, and communications to each opportunity, providing a centralized repository of information for effective collaboration.   

It ensures all team members can access the latest updates and work together seamlessly to drive the opportunity forward. It also helps you generate insightful reports and analytics to understand your sales performance better.   

Moreover, It empowers you to make data-driven decisions, identify trends, and refine your sales strategies for better results. 

Lead assignment and routing  

Lead assignment and routing feature of Insightly CRM


Lead Assignment and Routing in Insightly CRM streamlines the process of distributing leads within your organization.  

With this feature, you can set up rules and criteria based on various parameters such as lead source, location, industry, or any custom field. These rules help determine the most suitable salesperson or team to handle each lead. 

By automating the lead assignment process, Insightly CRM eliminates the need for manual intervention, saving time and reducing the risk of human error.  

Leads are automatically routed to the designated salesperson’s queue or inbox, ensuring a prompt response and preventing potential leads from falling through the cracks. 

This feature optimizes lead distribution by matching leads with the most appropriate salesperson based on their expertise, workload, or other criteria.  

It ensures that leads are assigned to individuals with the proper skill set and capacity to effectively follow up and convert them into customers.  

By enhancing lead response time and ensuring prompt follow-up, Insightly CRM’s Lead Assignment and Routing feature increases efficiency and improves the overall customer experience.   

It helps organizations maximize lead conversion rates, improve sales team productivity, and drive revenue growth. 

Customizable sales processes  

Customizable sales process feature of Insightly CRM


Insightly CRM offers the valuable feature of customizable sales processes, allowing businesses to adapt the CRM tool to their unique sales methodologies.  

With this capability, you can define custom stages, milestones, and actions aligning with your business requirements.  

Whether you follow a specific sales methodology like the traditional sales funnel or have a unique approach, Insightly CRM empowers you to tailor the system accordingly. 

By customizing the sales processes, you can mirror the steps and stages of your sales cycle within Insightly CRM, ensuring a seamless integration of the tool into your existing workflows.  

This alignment facilitates smoother adoption and acceptance among your sales team, as they can continue working within familiar structures. 

Moreover, the ability to define custom stages and milestones help you track and measure progress throughout the sales process accurately.  

You can set clear checkpoints, enabling your team to monitor and evaluate the status of each opportunity.  

By aligning Insightly CRM with your preferred sales processes, you can enhance visibility, improve forecasting accuracy, and make informed decisions based on real-time data. 

Configurable, automated workflows  

Configurable, automated workflows feature of Insightly CRM


Insightly CRM’s configurable workflows allow businesses to create automated processes tailored to their specific needs.   

This feature lets users define triggers, actions, and conditions that determine how the CRM system responds to specific events or data changes.   

For example, you can set up a workflow to automatically notify team members when a new lead is assigned, update records when a specific milestone is reached, or assign tasks based on certain criteria.  

By automating repetitive tasks, such as data entry or follow-up reminders, Insightly CRM significantly reduces manual effort and frees up valuable time for your team members.   

It improves efficiency and minimizes the risk of human errors with manual data handling.   

Additionally, the consistency achieved through automated workflows ensures that each step in a process is executed reliably and according to predefined rules.  

The reconfigurability of these workflows empowers businesses to adapt and optimize their CRM processes as their needs evolve.   

Users can customize workflows to match their unique business requirements, allowing seamless integration with existing workflows and the ability to address specific challenges or opportunities. 

Task management 

Task management feature of Insightly CRM


Insightly CRM’s task management feature provides a robust solution for efficiently organizing and tracking tasks within your organization.   

It helps you create tasks, assign them to team members, and prioritize them based on urgency and importance. Setting deadlines and receiving reminders ensures that tasks are noticed and completed on time.  

Using this feature, you can promote collaboration among team members by assigning tasks to specific individuals or teams, facilitating clear communication and seamless coordination.   

It improves accountability, as team members are aware of their responsibilities and deadlines. The feature also allows for the delegation of tasks, enabling efficient distribution of workload and avoiding bottlenecks.  

With the ability to track task progress and monitor completion, Insightly CRM empowers managers to comprehensively overview ongoing tasks and ensure that essential activities are accomplished on time.   

Additionally, it supports the attachment of files and notes, providing all relevant information in one centralized location, further streamlining task execution. 

Pros & cons of Insightly CRM 

Pros of Insightly CRM 

  1. Comprehensive feature set 

Insightly CRM offers a comprehensive range of features that cover various aspects of customer relationship management.   

From lead management and opportunity tracking to email automation and task management, Insightly CRM provides the tools to streamline sales processes, improve collaboration, and enhance customer interactions.   

The breadth of features ensures businesses have a single platform to manage customer relationships effectively. 

  1. User-friendly interface 

Insightly CRM boasts a user-friendly interface that is intuitive and easy to navigate. The clean design and logical layout make it simple for users to find the necessary information and perform tasks efficiently.   

With minimal training, teams can quickly adapt to Insightly CRM, reducing onboarding time and maximizing productivity. 

  1. Scalability 

Insightly CRM suits businesses of all sizes, from small startups to large enterprises. The platform offers scalability, allowing businesses to start with a basic plan and upgrade as their needs grow.  

This flexibility ensures that Insightly CRM can adapt to the evolving requirements of businesses, accommodating increasing data volumes and user numbers without compromising performance. 

  1. Integration capabilities 

Insightly CRM integrates with various third-party applications and tools, providing a unified ecosystem for managing customer relationships.  

The platform offers integrations with popular productivity tools like G Suite, Office 365, and Outlook, enabling smooth data synchronization and collaboration.  

Additionally, Insightly CRM integrates with marketing automation platforms, accounting software, and project management tools, allowing businesses to leverage existing systems and create a connected workflow. 

Cons of Insightly CRM 

  1. Limited customization options 

Despite having a wide range of capabilities, Insightly CRM may allow for less customization than some firms would like. Some features can be limitations, such as changing default fields or developing custom reports.   

This lack of flexibility can be a drawback for businesses with unique requirements or those seeking a high degree of customization to align with their specific processes and workflows. 

  1. Complexity in advanced configuration 

While the interface is user-friendly for basic tasks, more advanced configuration and customization options in Insightly CRM can be complex.  

Setting up complex automation workflows or designing intricate sales processes may require technical expertise or assistance from the support team.  

Businesses without dedicated technical resources face challenges in fully harnessing the advanced capabilities of the tool. 

  1. Pricing structure 

The pricing structure of Insightly CRM may only be suitable for some businesses. Some users have reported that the cost of certain features or add-ons can be relatively high, especially for small businesses with limited budgets.   

Additionally, the tiered pricing model based on the number of users can increase costs as the user count grows.   

It is essential for businesses to carefully evaluate their needs and budget before committing to a specific pricing plan. 

  1. Customer support 

While Insightly CRM offers customer support, there have been reports of mixed experiences regarding the responsiveness and effectiveness of their support team.  

Some users have expressed dissatisfaction with the timeliness of responses or the level of assistance received.  

It can be a potential concern for businesses that heavily rely on timely support for issue resolution or guidance during implementation. 

Insightly CRM pricing & plans 

Features Plus Professional Enterprise 
Lead Management YES YES YES 
Automated, Customized Emails YES YES YES 
Email Templates YES YES YES 
Kanban View YES YES YES 
Contact and Organization Management YES YES YES 
Opportunity Management YES YES YES 
Lead Assignment and Routing YES YES YES 
Customizable Sales Processes YES YES YES 
Configurable, Automated Workflows YES YES YES 
Task Management YES YES YES 

Customer reviews of Insightly CRM 

  1. G2: 4.2/5 
  1. Capterra: 4.0/5 
  1. Software Advice: 4.03/5 

Positive review of Insightly CRM 


Negative review of Insightly CRM 


Top 4 things people like about this tool 

The layout is easy to navigate 

One of the standout aspects of Insightly CRM that users appreciate is its intuitive and user-friendly interface.   

The layout is designed logically and organized, making it easy for users to find the information they need and navigate through different features and functionalities.   

This simplicity contributes to a smooth user experience and reduces the learning curve for new users. 

Email and project management integration 

Insightly CRM offers seamless integration with email and project management tools, which users highly value.   

The integration allows for easy synchronization of email conversations, attachments, and other project-related information within the CRM platform.   

This integration streamlines communication and collaboration, ensuring all relevant data is accessible from one centralized location, saving time and enhancing productivity. 

Automated workflows 

Users widely appreciate Insightly CRM’s automation capabilities. The tool allows users to create customizable workflows with triggers, actions, and conditions. 

These automated workflows can streamline repetitive tasks, send notifications, update records, and assign tasks, saving time and reducing manual effort.  

Users can design workflows specific to their business processes, increasing efficiency and ensuring consistency across the organization. 

Very user friendly 

The user-friendliness of Insightly CRM is frequently highlighted as a positive aspect. Users appreciate the tool’s ease of use and the minimal training required to get started.  

The interface is designed to be intuitive, and the overall user experience is considered smooth and pleasant.  

This user-friendliness contributes to a higher team adoption rate and facilitates a quicker transition into effectively leveraging the CRM’s features. 

Top 4 things people dislike about this tool 

Customer service issues 

Some users have reported issues with Insightly CRM’s customer service. Complaints have included delayed responses, lack of adequate support, or difficulty resolving specific problems.   

Prompt and effective customer support is crucial for users who rely on timely assistance, particularly during implementation or when encountering technical difficulties. 

The mobile app seems a little clunky 

While Insightly CRM offers a mobile app for on-the-go access, some users have expressed dissatisfaction with its functionality and user experience.  

Feedback suggests that the mobile app can feel slow, clunky, or lacking certain features compared to the desktop version.  

Users who heavily rely on mobile devices for CRM access would welcome enhancements to the mobile app’s performance and usability. 

No information backup  

A notable concern some users raise is the need for an automatic data backup feature in Insightly CRM. Data loss can be catastrophic for businesses, and having a reliable backup system is crucial for safeguarding critical information.  

Users have expressed the need for an integrated backup solution or the ability to easily export and back up their data to ensure data security and continuity. 

Mapping fields are challenging 

The process of mapping fields in Insightly CRM has been identified as a challenge by some users. Field mapping is necessary to align data from different sources or during data migration.  

Users have reported needing help in accurately mapping fields or finding the process unintuitive. 

Improved guidance or streamlined field mapping procedures would assist users in efficiently managing and organizing their data. 

Is Insightly CRM right for a small business? 

Insightly CRM can be suitable for small businesses seeking a comprehensive customer relationship management solution.   

Its features, user-friendly interface, scalability, and integration capabilities make it a viable option for small businesses in 2023 and beyond.  

It provides small businesses the tools to effectively manage leads, track opportunities, automate workflows, and enhance collaboration among team members.   

The intuitive interface requires minimal training, allowing small businesses to adopt and leverage the CRM system quickly.  

Moreover, it offers scalability, enabling small businesses to start with a basic plan and upgrade as their needs and operations expand.   

The integration capabilities of Insightly CRM also allow small businesses to connect with other essential tools and systems, facilitating a seamless workflow and data synchronization.  

However, small businesses should also consider factors such as budget constraints, the need for customization, and the availability of adequate support before choosing Insightly CRM.   

Evaluating specific business requirements and conducting a trial or demo can help small businesses determine if Insightly CRM fits their CRM needs and objectives. 

Is Insightly CRM right for a mid-scale business? 

Insightly CRM can be suitable for mid-scale businesses looking for a robust customer relationship management solution.   

With its extensive feature set and scalability, it offers the capabilities necessary to support mid-scale businesses’ growth and evolving needs.  

Mid-scale businesses can leverage Insightly CRM’s features, such as lead management, opportunity tracking, automated workflows, and task management, to streamline their sales processes, enhance collaboration, and improve customer interactions.   

The customizable sales processes and configurable workflows enable mid-scale businesses to adapt the CRM system to their specific requirements and workflows.  

Insightly CRM’s scalability allows mid-scale businesses to start with a plan that suits their current needs and easily upgrade as they expand their operations.   

Additionally, the integration capabilities of Insightly CRM enable seamless connectivity with other essential tools, providing a unified platform for managing customer relationships and streamlining business processes.  

When considering Insightly CRM for a mid-scale business, factors such as budget, customization options, and support should be carefully evaluated.   

Conducting a thorough assessment of specific business requirements and exploring a trial or demo version can help mid-scale businesses determine if Insightly CRM aligns with their CRM strategies and growth objectives. 

Is Insightly CRM right for an enterprise? 

Insightly CRM can be a viable option for enterprises seeking a comprehensive and scalable customer relationship management solution in 2023.   

With its robust feature set, integration capabilities, and customization options, Insightly CRM offers the tools to manage complex customer relationships and large volumes of data effectively.  

Enterprises can benefit from Insightly CRM’s lead management, opportunity tracking, automated workflows, and task management features to streamline their sales processes and enhance collaboration across teams.   

The platform’s scalability ensures that enterprises can accommodate their growing data volumes and user base without compromising performance.  

Moreover, Insightly CRM provides customization options, allowing enterprises to tailor the CRM system to their specific processes, workflows, and branding requirements.   

This flexibility ensures that Insightly CRM can align with enterprise-level operations’ unique needs and complexities.  

Before implementing Insightly CRM, enterprises should consider factors such as the cost of licensing and support and the need for advanced configuration and customization.   

A thorough evaluation of the enterprise’s specific requirements, integration needs, and growth strategies will help determine if Insightly CRM is the right fit for its CRM objectives in the years ahead. 

The best alternatives of Insightly CRM 


Salesmate is a powerful alternative to Insightly CRM, offering a user-friendly interface and comprehensive features to streamline sales processes.  

With visual sales pipeline management, email integration, and automation capabilities, it helps track deals, manage communication, and save time.  

Its robust reporting and analytics features provide valuable insights, while mobile apps enable access and updates.  

Affordable pricing plans, excellent customer support, and a focus on innovation make Salesmate an attractive option for businesses aiming to optimize sales effectiveness and drive revenue growth. 


Pipedrive is a highly intuitive CRM platform that focuses on sales pipeline management. 

With its user-friendly interface and visual pipeline view, Pipedrive allows businesses to track deals, manage leads, and forecast sales effectively.  

The platform offers robust customization options, integrations with popular tools, and advanced reporting capabilities, making it an ideal choice for sales-driven organizations. 


Freshsales is a comprehensive CRM solution offering various features designed to streamline sales processes.   

With intelligent lead scoring, advanced email tracking, and a built-in phone system, Freshsales helps businesses nurture leads, engage with customers, and close deals more efficiently.   

The platform provides seamless integrations, insightful analytics, and a visually appealing interface for enhanced user experience. 

Zendesk Sell 

Zendesk Sell, formerly known as Base CRM, is a powerful CRM tool that combines sales force automation with customer support capabilities.  

Its robust features include contact management, deal tracking, sales forecasting, and productivity-enhancing automation.  

Zendesk Sell’s intuitive interface, extensive reporting options, and collaborative features make it a compelling choice for businesses looking to align their sales and customer support efforts. 


Workbooks is a cloud-based CRM and business management platform to streamline sales, marketing, and customer service processes.   

With its comprehensive features, including lead management, opportunity tracking, marketing automation, and customer support ticketing, Workbooks provides businesses with a centralized solution for managing their customer lifecycle.   

The platform offers advanced customization options, robust reporting tools, and integration capabilities to support end-to-end business operations. 

Frequently asked questions 

  1. Is Insightly CRM suitable for any business size? 

Yes, Insightly CRM caters to businesses of all sizes. It offers scalable plans to accommodate the needs of small businesses, mid-scale businesses, and enterprises. Whether you have a small team or a large organization, Insightly CRM provides features and functionalities that can be tailored to your specific requirements. 

  1. Can Insightly CRM integrate with other business tools? 

Yes, Insightly CRM offers a wide range of integrations with popular business tools and applications. It integrates with email clients, project management software, marketing automation platforms, accounting systems, and more. It allows for a connected ecosystem, ensuring efficient data flow and collaboration across different tools.  

  1. How secure is the data stored in Insightly CRM? 

Insightly CRM takes data security seriously. It employs industry-standard security measures, including data encryption, regular backups, and role-based access controls. Additionally, Insightly CRM complies with major data privacy regulations, such as GDPR, to ensure the protection and privacy of your data. 

  1. Can I customize Insightly CRM to match my business processes? 

Yes, Insightly CRM offers a high level of customization. You can tailor the CRM to match your unique business processes, terminology, and workflows. Insightly CRM allows you to create custom fields, define sales stages, set up automated workflows, and personalize the user interface to align with your requirements. 

  1. What level of support is available for Insightly CRM users? 

Insightly CRM provides multiple support channels to assist users. It offers a comprehensive knowledge base with helpful articles, tutorials, and guides. Users can also access community forums to ask questions and engage with other Insightly CRM users. Additionally, depending on the plan, users can receive email support, phone support, and even dedicated customer success managers to address their specific needs.